1. Definition of autism
Autism (also known as autism) is a complex disorder that occurs when the brain is disturbed during development. Also known as pervasive developmental disorders, these include classic autism, Asperger's, Rett syndrome, childhood schizophrenia, and atypical autism.
2. What is autism?
Autism is a developmental disorder caused by abnormal brain function. It is usually detected around the age of three. It affects brain function, social skills and communication skills. Just like children in general, children with autism develop differently in all aspects. For example, some children with autism do not have the ability to speak, while others have the same language skills as normal children. The reason for the difference is that autism is a category of disorders. People in this category have different levels of intelligence and different behavioral traits. They generally tend to be stubborn and egocentric in thought and behavior; They all have varying degrees of impairment and abnormalities in language and social development, cognition and learning.
3. Who first discovered and began to study autism?
"Autism Affective Contact" by Dr. Leo Kerner of John Hopkins University in 1943 is considered one of the very first classical depictions of autism in academic circles around the world. The paper was published in the Nervous Child journal. In the paper, Dr. Kerner describes seven children between the ages of two and eight. They have similar symptoms, including difficulty communicating with others, difficulty helping each other, and unusual interests. Before this paper was published, children with these symptoms often turned out to be 'Schizophrenia.'
4. What are the symptoms of autism?
Every person with autism has different behavioral problems, and different levels of severity. Even if two children are diagnosed with autism at the same time, they may exhibit completely different symptoms. In general, children with autism appear by the age of three in the following three basic characteristics:
(1) Social development
Not interested in external things, not aware of the existence of others;
Lack of eye contact, inability to actively interact, share, or participate in activities;
In the aspect of group, the ability of imitation is weak, the ability of social skills is not mastered, the lack of cooperation;
Weak imagination, rarely through toys symbolic play activities.
Slow and impaired language development, abnormal speech content, speed, and tone of voice;
Varying degrees of difficulty in language comprehension and non-verbal communication;
May lack oral communication skills.
In daily life, adhere to certain ways and procedures, refuse to change habits and routines, and repeated some actions;
He has a narrow interest in certain objects, or is particularly interested in certain parts of objects or objects of certain shapes. In addition, children with autism are likely to have the following characteristics:
(4) Perception mode
Restlessness or intense reactions to certain sounds, colors, foods, or lights;
Weak responses to cold, heat, and pain, and therefore lack of alertness and appropriate responses to risky behavior;
Constantly rotating their bodies or exploring objects in unusual ways, they immerse themselves in certain sensory stimuli.
About 30 percent of the intelligences develop normally, and 70 percent are mentally retarded or have an IQ of 70 or below;
Capacity development in all areas is uneven and the process of development differs from that of the average child.
(6) Emotional and behavioral aspects
Due to the difficulty in communication and failure to adapt to changes, it is easy to be stimulated by emotional or environmental factors and behave impulsively or harmfully.
(7) Habits and habits
Can resist a certain taste, color or food that has not been eaten, thus forming a severe partial eating behavior;
You may have difficulty falling asleep.
(8) Strengths and interests
Some patients may have abnormal memory;
You may excel in your personal interests and skills.
(9) Social aspects
They rarely make eye contact with others, pay little attention to other people's expressions and emotions, and make it more difficult to infer other people's thoughts, intentions and intentions or understand other people's feelings from their words and actions. sometimes there will be no proper emotional expression and social behaviors, such as laugh when someone is not happy, say something inappropriate in certain situations, or failure to share the happiness with others.
5. How many children have autism?
Autism is found in almost all countries, and it's not just in countries that have good living conditions, and families, as the rumor has it. Until now, there has been no definitive figure for how many people have autism. Recent studies have shown that the number of cases of autism is on the rise. Is this rise due to increased emphasis on autism, or is the number really on the rise? That leaves researchers to investigate further.
One in 155 babies are born with autism, according to the American Autism Society. The majority are men, about four to one. According to the results of the second national sample survey of disabled people, children aged 0-6 years with mental disabilities (including multiple disabilities) account for 1.10‰ of the total number of children aged 0-6 years in China, accounting for about 111,000 people. Among them, children with mental disabilities caused by autism account for 36.9%, or about 41,000 people.
6. What causes a child to develop autism?
Clinical experts and scholars have so far been unable to reach a consensus on the causes of autism. Studies have shown that the formation of autism, and patients with psychological disorders or parenting attitudes have nothing to do. Recent studies have concluded that the causes of autism can be grouped into five categories:
(1) Development of neurological functions;
(2) Development of biochemical functions;
(3) Genetic factors;
(4) Brain injury;
(5) Virus infection during pregnancy.
7. When does it become apparent that a child may have autism?
In infancy (between 18 months and 24 months of life) it is possible to see a little, but not very easily, but in early childhood (between 24 months and 6 years of life), the symptoms become more apparent. Research shows that the earlier the diagnosis and treatment, the better the chance of alleviating behavioral problems in autism.